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Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Childhood Cancer Surgery in India

Overview

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a term that refers to several, very different types of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymph system. When lymphatic cells mutate (change) and grow unregulated by the processes that normally decide cell growth and death, they can form tumors.

The lymph system is made up of thin tubes that branch out to all parts of the body. Its job is to fight infection and disease. The lymph system carries lymph, a colorless fluid containing lymphocytes (white blood cells). Lymphocytes fight germs in the body. B-lymphocytes (also called B-cells) make antibodies to fight bacteria, and T-lymphocytes (also called T-cells) kill viruses and foreign cells and trigger the B-cells to make antibodies.

Groups of bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes are located throughout the body at different sites in the lymph system. Lymph nodes are found in clusters in the abdomen, groin, pelvis, underarms, and neck. Other parts of the lymph system include the spleen, which makes lymphocytes and filters blood; the thymus, an organ under the breastbone; and the tonsils, located in the throat.

Because lymph tissue is found in so many parts of the body, non-Hodgkin lymphoma can start almost anywhere and can spread to almost any organ in the body. It most often begins in the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen, but can also involve the stomach, intestines, skin, thyroid gland, or any other part of the body.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease, including cancer. There are risk factors that can be controlled, such as smoking, and risk factors that cannot be controlled, such as age and family history. Although risk factors can influence disease, for many risk factors it is not known whether they actually cause the disease directly. Some people with several risk factors never develop the disease, while others with no known risk factors do.

Although the exact cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown, some children seem to have a slightly greater risk of developing the disease:

Symptoms

Children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma often experience the following symptoms. Sometimes, children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma do not show any of these symptoms. Or, these symptoms may be similar to symptoms of other medical conditions. If you are concerned about a symptom on this list, please talk with your child's doctor.

The symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma may vary depending on where the cancer develops and what organ is involved.

General symptoms may include:

Symptoms related to tumor location may include:

A serious symptom of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). In SVCS, a tumor in the thymus area behind the breastbone squeezes the vein that carries blood from the head and arms to the heart. The head and arms swell as a result. SVCS can affect the brain and is life threatening. Children with SVCS need emergency medical attention.

Diagnosis

Doctors use many tests to diagnose cancer and determine if it has metastasized (spread). Some tests may also determine which treatments may be the most effective. For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis of cancer. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the cancer has metastasized. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:

The doctor will first perform a physical examination and take a complete medical history to determine if a person has non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The following tests may be used to diagnose non-Hodgkin lymphoma:


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Imaging tests

To determine where the cancer is and if it has spread, the doctor may use the following imaging tests:

Treatment

The treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the size and location of the tumor, whether the cancer has spread, and the child's overall health. In many cases, a team of doctors will work with the patient to determine the best treatment plan.

Clinical trials are the standard of care for the treatment of children with cancer. In fact, more than 60% of children with cancer are treated as part of a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that compare the best treatments available (standard treatments) with newer treatments that may be more effective. Cancer in children is rare, so it can be hard for doctors to plan treatments unless they know what has been most effective in other children. Investigating new treatments involves careful monitoring using scientific methods and all participants are followed closely to track progress.

To take advantage of these newer treatments, all children with cancer should be treated at a specialized cancer center. Doctors at these centers have extensive experience in treating children with cancer and have access to the latest research. Many times, a team of doctors treats children with cancer. Pediatric cancer centers often have extra support services for children and their families, such as nutritionists, social workers, and counselors. Special activities for kids with cancer may also be available.

Three types of therapy are used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children: chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Sometimes, the treatments are used in combination.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy travels through the bloodstream to cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and may be given by mouth, injected into a vein or muscle, or injected into the cerebral spinal fluid.

The type of chemotherapy used depends on the cancer's stage (how far advanced the cancer is) and the type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Because chemotherapy attacks rapidly dividing cells, including those in normal tissues such as the hair, lining of the mouth, intestines, and bone marrow, children receiving chemotherapy may lose their hair, develop mouth sores, or have nausea and vomiting. In addition, chemotherapy may lower the body's resistance to infection, lead to increased bruising and bleeding, and cause fatigue. These side effects can be controlled during treatment and usually go away after chemotherapy is completed. The severity of the side effects depends on the type and amount of the drug being given and the length of time the child receives the drug.

The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your child's doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications they've been prescribed, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Learn more about your child's prescriptions through PLWC's Drug Information Resources, which provides links to searchable drug databases.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells. The most common type of radiation therapy is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body.

Radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is generally used only in emergency or life-threatening situations. For example, it may be used to treat pressure from a tumor on the windpipe or spinal cord. Also, it is used if the lymphoma affected the central nervous system at diagnosis or to prevent recurrence of lymphoma in the central nervous system.

Side effects from radiation therapy include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished.


To get free no obligation Quote For Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Childhood Cancer Surgery
in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email : contact@indianhealthguru.com

Bone marrow transplantation

In a bone marrow transplant (BMT), the doctor first gives high doses of chemotherapy to destroy all of the child's bone marrow. The doctor then takes healthy marrow from a donor whose tissue matches the child's as closely as possible. The healthy marrow is infused into the child's vein. It finds its way to the bones and replaces the destroyed marrow.

The best match for bone marrow comes from the patient's brother or sister. But other people, including those who are not related to the child, may have a close enough match if a sibling's marrow is not available. When the bone marrow comes from a donor, it is called an allogeneic BMT.

In an autologous BMT, the child's own bone marrow is used. The bone marrow stem cells (cells that develop into many different types of cells) are removed from the child's peripheral blood or bone marrow, treated to destroy the cancer cells, and then frozen. The child then receives the treatment to eliminate his or her own bone marrow. The frozen marrow is thawed and injected to replace the destroyed marrow. The advantage of this method is that there is no risk of rejection, because the child receives his or her own marrow. One drawback is that if the treatment does not kill all of the cancer cells, the lymphoma could return to the child's body.

Recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Choice of treatment for recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on three factors:

Side Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

Cancer and cancer treatment can cause a variety of side effects; some are easily controlled and others require specialized care. Below are some of the side effects that are more common to non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and its treatments. For more detailed information on managing these and other side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, visit the PLWC Managing Side Effects section.

After Treatment

The treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma often involves prolonged hospitalizations during each treatment cycle (one to two weeks). Also, some of the therapy may cause significant mucositis (inflammation of the mucous membranes) that may lead to pain, discomfort, and difficulty eating and drinking.

Most pediatric cancer programs provide psychologic support, financial guidance, and social services support to families. These services can reduce the emotional pain and financial discomfort and should be utilized to the fullest extent possible.

Long-term, follow-up care is critical for all children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Even though the risk of recurrence begins to decline after three years, there is still the potential of long-term complications of heart dysfunction and/or infertility. The risk of secondary cancers after treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is also possible, although the risks are only 1% to 2%. Yearly follow-up care by an experienced health-care team is highly encouraged for survivors of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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To get free no obligation Quote For Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Childhood Cancer Surgery
in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email : contact@indianhealthguru.com

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

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About India

Destinations in India

Indian Embassy List

Medical Tourism FAQ

Visa For India

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