Surgery links + -

See Also + -


Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Surgery in India


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a term that refers to many, very different types of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymph system. When lymphatic cells mutate (change) and grow unregulated by the processes that normally decide cell growth and death, they can form tumors.

The lymph system is made up of thin tubes that branch out to all parts of the body. Its job is to fight infection and disease. The lymph system carries lymph, a colorless fluid containing white blood cells (called lymphocytes). Lymphocytes fight germs in the body. B-lymphocytes (also called B cells) make antibodies to fight bacteria, and T-lymphocytes (also called T cells) kill viruses and foreign cells and trigger the B cells to make antibodies.

Groups of bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes are located throughout the body at different sites in the lymph system. Lymph nodes are found in clusters in the abdomen, groin, pelvis, underarms, and neck. Other parts of the lymph system include the spleen, which makes lymphocytes and filters blood; the thymus, an organ under the breastbone; and the tonsils, located in the throat.

Because lymph tissue is found in so many parts of the body, NHL can start almost anywhere and can spread to almost any organ in the body. It most often begins in the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen, but can also involve the stomach, intestines, skin, thyroid gland, or any other part of the body.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease, including cancer. There are risk factors that can be controlled, such as smoking, and risk factors that cannot be controlled, such as age and family history. Although risk factors can influence disease, for many risk factors it is not known whether they cause the disease directly or they are simply a factor in causing the disease. Some people with several risk factors never develop the disease, while others with no known risk factors do. Knowing your risk factors and communicating with your doctor can help guide you in making wise lifestyle and health-care choices.

The exact cause of NHL is not known. The following factors can raise a person's risk of developing NHL:


People with NHL often experience the following symptoms. Sometimes people with NHL do not show any of these symptoms. These symptoms may be similar to symptoms of other medical conditions. If you are concerned about a symptom on this list, please talk with your doctor.

The symptoms of NHL depend on where the cancer develops and the organ that is involved.

General symptoms:

Examples of symptoms related to tumor location:

A serious symptom of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). In SVCS, a tumor in the thymus area behind the breastbone squeezes the vein that carries blood from the head and arms to the heart. The head and arms swell as a result. SVCS can affect the brain and is life threatening. Children with SVCS need emergency medical attention.


Doctors use many tests to diagnose cancer and determine if it has metastasized (spread). Some tests may also determine which treatments may be the most effective. For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis of cancer. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the cancer has metastasized. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:

To determine if a person has NHL, the doctor will first take a complete medical history and do a physical examination, paying special attention to the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. The doctor will also look for signs of infection that may cause the lymph nodes to swell and may prescribe antibiotics. If the swelling in the lymph nodes still does not go down, the swelling may be caused by something other than an infection. If the doctor still suspects lymphoma, he or she may also order a biopsy and laboratory and imaging tests.

The following tests may be used to diagnose NHL:

To get free no obligation Quote For Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Surgery in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email :


Through ongoing research, the medications used to treat cancer are constantly being evaluated in different combinations and to treat different cancers. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications you've been prescribed, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions.

The treatment of NHL depends on the stage of the cancer, whether the cancer has spread, and the person's overall health. In many cases, a team of doctors will work with the patient to determine the best treatment plan.

There are three main treatments for NHL: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biologic therapy. Since knowledge of genetic and chromosomal makeup of all cancers, including lymphoma, is developing rapidly, clinical trials of newer treatments may also be suitable for many patients.

Watchful waiting

Some patients with low-grade lymphoma may not require any treatment if they are otherwise well and the lymphoma is not causing any symptoms or problems with other organs. Patients are still closely monitored, but treatment only begins if symptoms or tests indicate that the cancer is progressing. Although this can be difficult to understand, there is very good evidence that, in some patients with low-grade lymphoma, the watch-and-wait approach does not adversely affect the chances of survival as long as regular and careful follow-up is performed.


Chemotherapy is the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. It is the primary treatment for NHL. Chemotherapy may be given by mouth or injected into a vein.

The chemotherapeutic drugs used depend on the stage and type of the cancer. The most common chemotherapy regimen for lymphoma is called CHOP and contains four drugs: cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar), doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin), and prednisone (a type of corticosteroid). Recent evidence has shown that for patients with B-cell lymphoma, the addition of a monoclonal antibody known as rituximab (Rituxan) (see monoclonal antibodies section below) to CHOP gives better results than the use of CHOP alone.

Chemotherapeutic drugs attack rapidly dividing cells, including those in normal tissues such as the hair, lining of the mouth, intestines, and bone marrow. Chemotherapy may cause people to lose their hair, develop mouth sores, or have nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapeutic drugs may lower the body's resistance to infection, cause fatigue, and lead to increased bruising and bleeding. Other side effects may include numbness and tingling in the fingers and toes, loss of appetite, constipation, or diarrhea. The severity of the side effects depends on the type of drug used, the dosage used, and how long it is taken.

Most side effects, including risk of infection, can be controlled during treatment and go away after chemotherapy is completed. Chemotherapy may also cause long-term side effects, also called late effects.

Radiation therapy

High energy x-rays are used to destroy cancer cells and shrink malignant tumors. Radiation for NHL is usually external-beam radiation therapy, which uses a machine to deliver x-rays to the site of the body where the cancer is located. For patients with lymphoma, it is mainly used with those who have early stage disease and is usually given following or in addition to chemotherapy. It is often given to patients who have mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

Since radiation therapy kills healthy cells as well as cancer cells, patients may experience immediate side effects depending on the area of the body that is being irradiated. These may include mild skin irritations, upset stomach, loose bowel movements, nausea, and sore throat. Most patients feel tired. Many side effects can be helped by medication and usually go away when treatment is finished. Radiation therapy may also cause long-term side effects, also called late effects.

Biologic therapy

Also called immunotherapy, biologic therapy uses the body's immune system to fight cancer. Monoclonal antibodies, interferon, and vaccines are biologic therapies being tested in clinical trials as treatments for NHL.

Stem cell transplantation

This technique is a way of treating NHL with very high doses of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells and introducing new stem cells into the body that can form new blood cells. It is a difficult but relatively safe treatment and is reserved for patients with NHL whose disease is progressive or recurrent.

Stem cells are blood-forming cells that are usually found in the bone marrow. They can be collected and used for transplantation, either from the bone marrow space in the hipbone or, more commonly, from the blood.

First, stem cells from the bone marrow are "mobilized" into the blood by treating the patient with chemotherapy and another drug known as G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor). The stem cells are then collected from the blood, frozen, and stored. After this, the patient receives very high doses of chemotherapy (sometimes also with radiation therapy) to treat the NHL. These high doses are used since patients who undergo this treatment have disease that has proven to be resistant to normal chemotherapy doses. Higher doses of chemotherapy are more effective against recurrent NHL than standard doses of chemotherapy.

Although the patient's bone marrow may have been severely damaged by this high-dose chemotherapy treatment, the stem cells will be given back to the patient after the high-dose therapy and will restore blood cell production.

If the stem cells come from the patient, it is called an autologous transplantation. If the marrow comes from another person, it is called an allogeneic transplantation.

A mini-allogeneic transplantation is one that uses reduced intensity treatments before the transplantation. It is sometimes given to patients who may be too old or may not have the strength to go through the standard bone marrow transplantation process and is being evaluated in clinical trials to determine if it is effective in treating lymphoma.

To get free no obligation Quote For Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Surgery in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email :

Side Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

Cancer and cancer treatment can cause a variety of side effects; some are easily controlled and others require specialized care. Below are some of the side effects that are more common to NHL and its treatments.

After Treatment and Late Effects of Treatment

After treatment is completed, patients should continue to see their doctor on a regular basis for physical examinations, blood tests, and possibly scans or other imaging studies. For the first two years, clinic visits are usually every two or three months. If there is still no evidence of disease, patients will not have to see the doctor as often, but should still return at least once a year for a checkup. Normally, follow-up visits are most frequent in the first three years after treatment. Follow-up visits usually continue for life.

Patients who have undergone treatment for lymphoma have an increased risk of developing other diseases or conditions later in life, as the toxicity of chemotherapy or radiation treatment can cause permanent damage. Treatments have already improved in the last 30 years, and now patients who have been through treatment for lymphoma are less likely to experience late effects, but there is still some risk. Therefore, it is important that patients stay current with their follow-up care to monitor any developments.

Advanced disease

If NHL recurs (comes back) after treatment is finished, it is called recurrent NHL (or relapsed or refractory disease). Choice of treatment for recurrent NHL depends on three factors: where the cancer comes back, the type of treatment given previously, and the patient's overall health. The doctor may use chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation or may recommend a clinical trial, a research study that evaluates new methods of treatment.

Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:

AustraliaNew ZealandNigeria
Sri LankaBangladeshPakistan

To get free no obligation Quote For Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Surgery in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email :

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Click icon to Download Document

About India

Destinations in India

Indian Embassy List

Medical Tourism FAQ

Visa For India

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Surgery India, NHL Surgery India, Lymphoma Surgery India, Non-Hodgkin Surgery India, Low Cost Non-Hodgkin Surgery India, Low Cost Lymphoma Surgery India, Best Lymphoma Surgery Price India, Best Non-Hodgkin Surgery Price India, Lymphoma Treatment cost in India, non-Hodgkin lymphoma Surgery India

Listen to the Voices of Our Happy Patients

See All Our Patients Videos