Surgery links + -

See Also + -


Retinoblastoma Surgery in India


Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer that begins in the part of the eye called the retina. The retina is a thin layer of nerve tissue that coats the back of the eye and enables the eye to see. Most cases are unilateral (involving only one eye), but some may be bilateral (involving both eyes). If retinoblastoma spreads, it can spread to the lymph nodes, bones, or the bone marrow. Rarely, it involves the central nervous system (CNS).

Children may be born with retinoblastoma, but the disease is rarely diagnosed at birth. Most children who begin treatment before the retinoblastoma has spread beyond the eye are cured. An important goal of treatment in children with retinoblastoma is preserving vision.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease, including cancer. There are risk factors that can be controlled, such as smoking, and risk factors that cannot be controlled, such as age and family history. Although risk factors can influence disease, for many risk factors it is not known whether they actually cause the disease directly. Some people with several risk factors never develop the disease, while others with no known risk factors do.

When retinoblastoma affects both eyes, it is always a genetic condition, even though only 10% to 15% of children with retinoblastoma have a family history of the disease. Rarely, the genetic form occurs in only one eye. The genetic form of the disease always occurs in younger children (rarely beyond one year old) and increases the child's risk of developing another cancer later in life. About 60% of children with retinoblastoma do not have the genetic form. They develop a single tumor in only one eye, and there is no increased risk of additional tumors later in life.

Children who have had bilateral retinoblastoma or the hereditary form of unilateral retinoblastoma are at increased risk for developing other types of cancer; the risk of additional tumors is higher in those children who receive radiation therapy to the orbit (eye socket) to preserve vision or to other parts of the body where the tumor has spread.


Children with retinoblastoma often experience the following symptoms. Sometimes, children with retinoblastoma do not show any of these signs or symptoms. Or, these symptoms may be similar to symptoms of other medical conditions. If you are concerned about a symptom on this list, please talk to your child's doctor. Sometimes, a doctor finds retinoblastoma on a routine, well-baby examination. Most often, however, parents notice symptoms such as:


Doctors use many tests to diagnose cancer and determine if it has metastasized (spread). Some tests may also determine which treatments may be the most effective. Although a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis for most types of cancer, this is usually not possible in the case of retinoblastoma, and the doctor will suggest other ways to make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the cancer has metastasized. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:

The next step after observing the symptoms is to have the child examined by a specialist, who will do a thorough ophthalmic examination to check the retina for a tumor. Depending on the age of the child, either a local or general anesthetic is used during the eye examination.

The specialist will make a drawing or take a photograph of the tumor in the eye to provide a record for future examinations and treatment, and may use additional tests to confirm or detect a tumor.

If a newborn has a family history of retinoblastoma, the baby should be examined shortly after birth by an ophthalmologist (a medical eye doctor) who specializes in cancers of the eye.

To get free no obligation Quote For Retinoblastoma Surgery
in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email :

The following tests may be used to diagnose retinoblastoma:


Clinical trials are the standard of care for the treatment of children with cancer. In fact, more than 60% of children with cancer are treated as part of a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that compare the standard treatments (the best treatments available) with newer treatments that may be more effective. Cancer in children is rare, so it can be hard for doctors to plan treatments unless they know what has been most effective in other children. Investigating new treatments involves careful monitoring using scientific methods and all participants are followed closely to track progress.

To take advantage of these newer treatments, all children with cancer should be treated at a specialized cancer center. Doctors at these centers have extensive experience in treating children with cancer and have access to the latest research. Many times, a team of doctors treats a child with cancer. Pediatric cancer centers often have extra support services for children and their families, such as nutritionists, social workers, and counselors. Special activities for children with cancer may also be available. Surgical treatment for retinblastoma should also be performed by specially trained pediatric ophthalmologists.

Several types of therapies are used for retinoblastoma, and more than 90% of children can be cured. In addition to cure, an important goal of therapy for retinoblastoma is the preservation of vision. Many of these treatment approaches have become available as a result of clinical trials. The Childrens Oncology Group has recently developed treatment protocols for which some children with retinoblastoma will be eligible.

Treatments for retinoblastoma include:

Surgery to remove the eye is called enucleation. Children with a tumor in one eye only can often be cured with this treatment. In children with a tumor in both eyes, enucleation is used only if the ocular oncologist determines that preserving vision using other treatment is not possible.

Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation therapy given from a machine outside the body. Radioactive plaque therapy, also called internal radiation therapy, is the delivery of radiation therapy directly to the eye with a disc containing radiation.
Fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and headache are common temporary side effects of radiation therapy. Radiation therapy in young children can interfere with normal growth, including growth of the orbital bones, depending on the dose. The increased risk of additional tumors later in life for children with the hereditary form of retinoblastoma is further increased following radiation therapy. These effects are not seen after radioactive plaque therapy.

Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells.

Laser therapy
Laser therapy uses heat in the form of a laser to shrink smaller tumors. It may be called thermotherapy (or TTT for transpupillary thermotherapy), and it may be used alone or in addition to cryotherapy or radiation therapy. Photocoagulation is a different type of laser therapy that uses light to shrink tumors.

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells, and may be used to shrink tumors in the eye. It is administered by a pediatric oncologist and often makes it possible to completely eliminate any remaining smaller tumors with the following focal (localized) measures:

Chemoreduction is a treatment approach that is often used in children with bilateral disease in the hope of avoiding enucleation and preserving vision in at least one eye. The ophthalmologist, in consultation with the pediatric oncologist, will determine if this treatment is appropriate. Both doctors will monitor the response to treatment regularly and may recommend additional treatment to prevent the cancer from returning.

The drugs used most often are vincristine (Oncovin), carboplatin (Paraplatin), and etoposide (VePesid, Etopophos, Toposar). Depending on the extent of the tumor, a combination of two or more drugs will be recommended. All chemotherapy has side effects that occur during the period of treatment. Some drugs have the potential for specific long-term complications. Your doctor will discuss these before treatment begins.

The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your child's doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications they've been prescribed, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications.

Recurrent retinoblastoma

Treatment of recurrent retinoblastoma depends on where the cancer recurred and how aggressive the new tumor is. The doctor may recommend surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or focal measures (photocoagulation, thermotherapy, or cryotherapy).

Side Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

Cancer and cancer treatment can cause a variety of side effects; some are easily controlled and others require specialized care. Below are some of the side effects that are more common to retinoblastoma and its treatments.

Fatigue (tiredness). Fatigue is extreme exhaustion or tiredness, and is the most common problem that people with cancer experience. More than half of patients experience fatigue during chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and up to 70% of patients with advanced cancer experience fatigue. Patients who feel fatigue often say that even a small effort, such as walking across a room, can seem like too much. Fatigue can seriously impact family and other daily activities, can make patients avoid or skip cancer treatments, and may even impact the will to live.

Nausea and vomiting. Vomiting, also called emesis or throwing up, is the act of expelling the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is a natural way for the body to rid itself of harmful substances. Nausea is the urge to vomit. Nausea and vomiting are common in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer and in some patients receiving radiation therapy. Many patients with cancer say they fear nausea and vomiting more than any other side effects of treatment. When it is minor and treated quickly, nausea and vomiting can be quite uncomfortable but cause no serious problems. Persistent vomiting can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, weight loss, depression, and avoidance of chemotherapy.

After Treatment

All children cured of cancer, including those with retinoblastoma, require life-long, follow-up care. Once a child has been free of retinoblastoma for two to four years following treatment, and is considered cured, the emphasis during periodic follow-up visits changes. Pediatric oncologists will focus on the quality of the child's life, including developmental and psychosocial concerns.

Most young children adapt well to the loss of one eye if enucleation took place. Rarely, both eyes will require removal to save the child's life. If both eyes are removed, the local educational system is required to provide special services. Parents are encouraged to investigate the school's services and advocate on their child's behalf.

Based on the therapy the child received and whether the child has the genetic form of retinoblastoma, the doctor will determine what evaluations are needed to check for long-term effects. This may include imaging studies (CT scan or MRI) and blood work. Counseling will also be provided in the case of children who have an increased risk of additional tumors later in life, such as those with bilateral disease and those with unilateral disease who have a family history of the disease. Annual visits to specialized ophthalmologic and medical oncologists are necessary in order to fully monitor the child's recovery, and to increase the probability that a second cancer will be detected in its earliest stages.

Children who have had cancer can also enhance the quality of their future by following established guidelines for good health into and through adulthood, including not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding drinking alcohol in excess.

Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:

AustraliaNew ZealandNigeria
Sri LankaBangladeshPakistan

To get free no obligation Quote For Retinoblastoma Surgery
in India: click here
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
Email :

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Click icon to Download Document

About India

Destinations in India

Indian Embassy List

Medical Tourism FAQ

Visa For India

Retinoblastoma Surgery India, Retinoblastoma Cancer Treatment India, Low Cost Retinoblastoma Surgery India, Surgical treatment for retinblastoma in India, Low Cost Retinoblastoma Treatment India, Affordable Retinoblastoma India, Cost of Retinoblastoma Surgery India, Treatments for retinoblastoma in India, diagnosis of retinoblastoma, Surgery to remove eye in India, Enucleation in India

Listen to the Voices of Our Happy Patients

See All Our Patients Videos